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Yamuna River
Submitted by Haresh S. Khemani on Sat, 02/12/2006 - 20:49
Yamuna River

Yamuna is one of the major rivers of India having the total length of about 1370 km. The source of Yamuna is Yamunotri in the Uttaranchal Himalaya, which is north of Haridwar in the Himalayan Mountains. Yamuna River flows through the states of Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and finally merges with river Ganges in Allahabad. A number of prominent cities such as Delhi, Mathura and Agra lie on the bank of river Yamuna.

In the capital New Delhi and its surrounding areas, Yamuna is one of the most polluted rivers in the world in spite of the numerous efforts made to keep is clean. The main reason behind this is the high density of the population living in the city and the dumping of untreated water and waste into the river. To add to it the attitude of government is lax towards it and the projects meant for the cleansing of the river are not implemented properly. The water in this river remains stagnant for nine months in a year that further aggravates the situation.

As per the figures, Delhi alone contributes around 3,296 MLD (million liters per day) of sewage in the river. Over the next five years the government has planned to rebuild and repair the sewerage system and the drains that empty into the river. But to what extent these plans will be implemented is a big question mark.

The Ministry of Environment and Forests have taken certain steps to clean the river and stop its further pollution. The National River Conservation Directorate is implementing the action plan, Yamuna Action Plan, since 1993 in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi. The Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) is participating in the Yamuna Action Plan in 15 of the above 21 towns.


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abc wrote Difference betwee Erin Brockovich and flesh Jaya seelan at 12:46:02 AM on September 19, 2007

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Pollution due to highly bribed DPCC and Member Secretary.
There is a government body called Delhi Pollution control committe existing in delhi called DPCC basically established for controlling pollution in this national capital region(DELHI).

I being an environment friendly citizen applied for a unit in prime industrial area of New Delhi only after installing and succesfully running the required systems for controlling pollution and treatment of Water.

The concerned department ie DPCC which became active sometimes and became natent most of the time, tortured me and my family continously for one and half year asking for clarifications for the reason for our application.

Inspite of giving all possible proofs to the department they made our consent application a big issue and keep on demanding huge amount of money from us which due to no other option we keep on giving them the amount whenever demanded from them.

Since I had refused them bribe when they had their first visit after the application,they were exploiting us all the time. In the mean time they were providing consents to the people which were not having systems for controlling pollution installed at their polluting units at a nominal bribe of 12000 This procedure of providing consent to operate polluting manufacturing units after getting bribe and not installing pollution control measures is till today's date ie.20-07-2007 is kept on followed.

I complained this matter to CVC ( Central Vigilance commission ) and CBI( Central Beauru of Investigation) but of no use.

The member secretory Mrs.jaya seelan whose office is in secretariat building was continously abusing me with words i have never heard. She even was torturing me of what kind of science graduation i have attained in front of excise commissioner and then deputy commissioner of DPCC Mrs.Debashree Mukherjee. She was agreeing sometimes and abusing me and my family other time.

1)I had applied for a consent only when I had succesfully treated water continously for two years in Gagan Enterprises.

2) At the time of installation of the treatment plant , DPCC was not playing any active role in Delhi.

3)When I submitted my application form they tried to gramitacally figure out mistakes in that because at that time also they were recieving bribes from polluting units.

4)Even now there is no need to give you any media briefs for the kind and level of pollution in River Yamuna.

5)There are unlimited number of manufacturing units draining immense amount of UNTREATED water in Yamuna existing in Delhi.

6)Delhi face the threat of becoming a desert in the near future.

7)Ground water is being contaminated by toxic elements released by industrial untreated discharge. The disposal of industrial effluents into the Yamuna flood plain and water channels around Delhi, seepage through sewage dumps, agricultural waste, percolation of liquid wastes and general bad hygiene habits and poor sanitation provisions has led to this pollution.

8)Two decades ago Yamuna was a river,but what remains of it now is a sluggish flow laden with plastic,solid waste,untreated industrial water and corpses.

9)Japan Bank for International Co-operation extended a soft loan of Rs.700 crore for treating Yamuna.But due to collection of bribes by dpcc officials proprietors of industrial units are allowed to flush untreated water into sewer.

10)The biochemical oxygen demand(BOD),dissolved oxygen(DO) and colon bacillus colonies-three main parameters to gauge water quality-have worsened due to increasing corruption.

11)The courts are only concerned about removing encroachments and unauthorized colonies who discharge organic wastes.The untreated inorganic industrial effluents obviously make way into the river even if discharged by automatic machines or labours working in factories because industries are sources of huge bribe collection which fill pockets of jaya seelan also.

This criteria is not dependent on the place of residence of workers.

12)There is widespread pollution of Delhi's underground water system due to excessive seepage of toxic chemicals like arsenic, mercury and fluorides. This is not surprising when 19 industrial drains empty into the Yamuna flood plain alone.

13)The pollutants that have affected the environment of Delhi due to this uncontrolled seepage are nitrates, potassium, phosphates and heavy metals like cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc.

14)People of delhi are be exposed to chromium through breathing, eating or drinking and through skin contact with chromium or chromium compounds. The level of chromium in air and water is generally low. In drinking water the level of chromium is usually low as well, but contaminated well water may contain the
dangerous chromium(IV); hexavalent chromium.
For most people eating food that
contains chromium(III) is the main route of chromium uptake, as chromium(III)
occurs naturally in many vegetables, fruits, meats, yeasts and grains.
Various ways of food preparation and storage may alter the chromium contents of food. When food in stores in steel tanks or cans chromium concentrations may rise.

Chromium(III) is an essential nutrient for humans and shortages may cause heart conditions, disruptions of metabolisms and diabetes. But the uptake of too much chromium(III) can cause health effects as well, for instance skin rashes.

Chromium(VI) is a danger to human health, mainly for people who work in the steel and textile industry. People who smoke tobacco also have a higher chance of exposure to chromium.

Chromium(VI) is known to cause various health effects. When it is a compound in leather products, it can cause allergic reactions, such as skin rash.

After breathing it in chromium(VI) can cause nose irritations and nosebleeds.
Other health problems that are caused by chromium(VI) are:

- Skin rashes
- Upset stomachs and ulcers
- Respiratory problems
- Weakened immune systems
- Kidney and liver damage
- Alteration of genetic material
- Lung cancer
- Death

The health hazards associated with exposure to chromium are dependent on its oxidation state. The metal form (chromium as it exists in this product) is of low toxicity. The hexavalent form is toxic. Adverse effects of the hexavalent form on the skin may include ulcerations, dermatitis, and allergic skin reactions. Inhalation of hexavalent chromium compounds can result in ulceration and perforation of the mucous membranes of the nasal septum,irritation of the pharynx and larynx, asthmatic bronchitis, bronchospasms and
edema. Respiratory symptoms may include coughing and wheezing, shortness of breath, and nasal itch.

15)Nickel is not known to cause any health problems when people are
exposed to it at levels above the MCL for relatively short periods of time.
Nickel has the potential to cause the following effects from a
lifetime exposure at levels above the MCL: decreased body weight; heart and liver damage; skin irritation.

16)Exposure occurs from lead's presence in air, food, water, soil, dustfall,paint, and other materials. Lead is readily absorbed by the body via the primary routes of entry, inhalation and ingestion. Studies indicate that 10% to 20% of inhaled lead enters the blood stream. In children, approximately 50% of ingested lead is absorbed as compared to 8% to 10% for adults. This is especially significant since much of children's lead exposure is caused by their normal habits of mouthing dirty hands, objects and materials.

Within the body, lead is found in circulating red blood cells, soft tissues(liver and kidney), and bone (where lead is accumulated). Blood lead concentrations are the most reliable indicator of recent lead exposure.Known health effects of lead poisoning include:

Brain and nervous system damage, which can include permanent mental and motor retardation and in extreme cases, death.
Severe kidney injury or failure.
Injury to the gastrointestinal system and the heart.
Damage to the reproductive system, including:
Ovarian and testicular dysfunction.
Impaired fetal blood synthesis, premature births, and other delivery
Long-term, low level lead exposure causes learning deficits and behavioral problems in children. The major source to children is through contact with the dust or chips from old lead-containing paint. However, significant airborne exposure may occur near manufacturing facilities emitting large amounts of lead.

At present, a child with blood lead levels over 10 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dl) is considered lead-poisoned. Exposure to air containing 1 µg/m3 of lead is associated with a 5 µg/dl increase in blood lead; thus, long-term exposure to air containing over 2 µg/m3 could cause a child to become lead-poisoned.

Recent studies suggest that lead may be a factor in high blood pressure and subsequent heart disease in middle-aged white males.

Effects on Plants and Animals
At common low ambient concentrations lead does not usually pose a threat to plants and animals. However, exposure to high concentrations has adversely affected domestic animals, wildlife, and aquatic life. Areas near major emission sources are most susceptible.

16)Water is polluted with zinc, due to the presence of large quantities of zinc in the wastewater of industrial plants in Delhi.This wastewater is not purified and thereb resulting further increase of pollution in delhi.
One of the consequences is that yamuna is depositing zinc-polluted sludge on their banks. Zinc may also increase the acidity of waters.
Some fish can accumulate zinc in their bodies, when they live in
zinc-contaminated waterways. When zinc enters the bodies of these fish it is able to bio magnify up the food chain.

Large quantities of zinc can be found in soils. When the soils of farmland are polluted with zinc, animals will absorb concentrations that are damaging to their health. Water-soluble zinc that is located in soils can contaminate groundwater.

Zinc cannot only be a threat to cattle, but also to plant species. Plants often have a zinc uptake that their systems cannot handle, due to the accumulation of zinc in soils.

On zinc-rich soils only a limited number of plants has a chance of survival.
That is why there is not much plant diversity near zinc-disposing factories.

Due to the effects upon plants zinc is a serious threat to the productions of farmlands. Despite of this zinc-containing manures are still applied.

Finally, zinc can interrupt the activity in soils, as it negatively
influences the activity of microrganisms and earthworms. The breakdown of
organic matter may seriously slow down because of this.

17)Around 1393 mld of sewerage finds its way into river Yamuna through 19 major drains. Out falling into the river carrying 218 mls which includes 48 mgd of industrial effluent. BOD content of this water is 587 mld in all the 5 sewerage zones of Delhi. 64% of total BOD is from domestic sources. 10-15% of nutrients added to the soils through fertilizers eventually find their surface water system. The highest load occurs from the NCT Delhi (about 152 MT/day of BOD load) as compared to the loads of other cities which vary from 1 mt/day) as per Yamuna Action Plan. Everyday about 1880 mld of waste water is discharge into the river from Delhi through 18 drains. More than 95% waster water in Delhi is drained by 5 drains viz. Nazafgarh, Sen Nursing home, and power house drain.

18)The 48 km stretch of the Yamuna River in Delhi is heavily polluted by domestic and industrial wastewater.

19)Chemical contamination will lead to the spread of many lethal diseases like cancer in the near future.

20)There are 28 industrial areas in Delhi. Most of the small and tiny industries do not have individual facilities to treat liquid waste.

21)The alarming rise in chemical pollution last year too and consumption by humans is likely to cause a number of diseases. This process is never checked due to money and favour collection by Delhi Pollution Control Committe all the time they visit polluted industries. It is well-known that cadmium contamination causes anaemia, high blood pressure, liver trouble and hepatic and renal disorders. Nickel causes pneumonia, lung and nose cancer, headache nausea and vomiting. Lead may cause gastric problems, kidney diseases and nervous disorders. Zinc is toxic to plants.

22)The air pollution in delhi has also increased rapidly.

23)Children have narrower airways than do adults. Thus, irritation or
inflammation caused by air pollution that would produce only a slight
response in an adult can result in a potentially significant obstruction of the airways in a young child.
During exercise, children, like adults, breathe with both their nose and
mouth rather than just their noses. When the nose is bypassed during the
breathing process, the filtering effects of the nose are lost, therefore
allowing more air pollution to be inhaled.

24)Sulfur dioxide not only has a bad odor, it can irritate the respiratory system. Exposure to high concentrations for short periods of time can constrict the bronchi and increase mucous flow, making breathing difficult.

Children, the elderly, those with chronic lung disease, and asthmatics are especially susceptible to these effects. Sulfur dioxide can also:
Immediately irritate the lung and throat at concentrations greater than 6
parts per million (ppm) in many people.
Impair the respiratory system's defenses against foreign particles and
bacteria, when exposed to concentrations less than 6 ppm for longer time
Apparently enhance the harmful effects of ozone. (Combinations of the two
gases at concentrations occasionally found in the ambient air appear to
increase airway resistance to breathing.)

Sulfur dioxide tends to have more toxic effects when acidic pollutants,
liquid or solid aerosols, and particulates are also present.
Effects are more pronounced among mouth breathers, e.g., people who are exercising or who have head colds. These effects include:
Health problems, such as episodes of bronchitis requiring hospitalization
associated with lower-level acid concentrations.
Self-reported respiratory conditions, such as chronic cough and difficult breathing, associated with acid aerosol concentrations. (Asthmatic individuals are especially susceptible to these effects. The elderly and those with chronic respiratory conditions may also be affected at lower concentrations than the general population.)

Increased respiratory tract infections, associated with longer term,
lower-level exposures to SO2 and acid aerosols.
Subjective symptoms, such as headaches and nausea, in the absence of
pathologicalabnormalities, due to long-term exposure.

Effects on Plants
Sulfur dioxide easily injures many plant species and varieties, both native and cultivated. Some of the most sensitive plants include various
commercially valuable pines, legumes, red and black oaks, white ash, alfalfa and blackberry. The effects include:
Visible injury to the most sensitive plants at exposures as low as 0.12 ppm for 8 hours.
Visible injury to many other plant types of intermediate sensitivity at
exposures of 0.30 ppm for 8 hours.
Positive benefits from low levels, in a very few species growing on sulfur deficient soils.

Other Effects
Increases in sulfur dioxide concentrations accelerate the corrosion of
metals, probably through the formation of acids. (SO2 is a major precursor to acidic deposition.) Sulfur oxides may also damage stone and masonry, paint,various fibers, paper, leather, and electrical components.

Increased SO2 also contributes to impaired visibility. Particulate sulfate,much of which is derived from sulfur dioxide emissions, is a major component of the complex total suspended particulate mixture.

25)Diesel cars in 2006 represent nearly 20% of new car registrations in Delhi, up from 4% in 1999. While gasoline cars have increased at 8.5% annually, diesel cars have maintained a growth rate of 16.6%. It is shocking to note that diesel cars during the same period have increased by 425 per cent. The share of diesel cars, a mere 4 per cent of the total new car registration in 1999, has climbed to nearly 20 per cent in 2006. While petrol cars have increased at 8.5 per cent annually, diesel cars have maintained a growth rate of 16.6 per annum," the release added The cumulative effect is overwhelming the emissions benefits gained by the city's earlier phase-out of its 12,000 diesel buses. It is calculated that the 118,631 diesel cars on the city's roads are equivalent to adding particulate emissions from nearly 30,000 diesel buses. NOx levels are steadily rising.

26)Nine of every twenty residents suffer from lung, liver or genetic disorders due to highly-polluted air in the capital city of 16 million. It has been found that polluted air has also altered immunity and caused blood-related abnormalities among many of the victims

Permissible limits suitable for drinking water is as follows:


Cu 0.05

Fe 0.1

NO3 45

F 1.0

Zn 0.05

SO4 200

Ca 75

Mg 30

Mn 200

Hg 0.01

Cd 0.005

As 0.05

Pb 0.01

Cr 0.05

Ni 0.02

Hardness 2mg/l

pH 7-8.5

The levels of manganese, copper,mickel,chromium,iron selenium,lead,arsenic,mercury and cadmium are marginally above the Indian Standards (IS) specification regulated for drinking water

27)There is serious problems with the extremely poor monitoring capacities of government agencies because they collect bribe and so give wrong data and also the information they generate is broadly indicative.

28)The way the government,the courts and Mrs.Jaya Seelan are proceeding, it is clear that the intention is not to fight pollution.

29)I had closed Gagan Enterprises in April 2004 itself.

30)DPCC and any environment groups in India only want media attention and no more devoted towards controlling pollution.

31)If I was right in controlling pollution then the reasons for my application were also righteous,this means I was tortured. If I was wrong in the decision for application,this is sure DPCC is not acting even today,because consents are being provided to polluting units in delhi after getting bribes,Then also Human Right Commission should pay at least some attention to my complaint and do whatever is suitable to the greatest authority in this earth,to become true to your lord.

32)There is a difference between long term remedies and short temporary measures for controlling pollution.

33)Dpcc is not following any of the above procedures because they are able to gather bribe from polluting units which thereby flourish more and thus polluting more.
I being surviving in the same system along with maintaining huge expenses for pollution control devices and also giving bribes was not able to run that factory.

34)The products manufactured in delhi are consumed in other states also.

35)The eligibility or intention of owner of any unit is the only criteria which is responsible for the methods that company employ in controlling pollution.

36)This factor is not dependent on geographic location of the polluting unit.Simply relocating industries means relocating pollution from the backyard of Delhi's elite to wherever human life can be found to be cheaper

37)My first claim is that inspite of relocating the polluting units,there should be ban on indivisuals to open any manufacturing unit whether polluting or not; in any area. If ohchr is ready to send me details of proofs required to show and proove my complaints i can send that through any medium and also through courier.

38)As I had already mentioned due to the torture faced by me when I was operating an industry in which all the pollution control measures were installed and succesfully being used continously for treatment and purification of water and air; for not giving bribe too often,I had to face more hassles and torture, I closed that unit in march 2004.

39)Now I opened an Electronic Goods showroom in september 2004.

40)For no reason DDA officials visited this premises and told me that we are there to enchourage youngsters and we dont require small amount of bribe.

41)Since they dont use the exact words to demand money and talk like demanding gifts which is much a common way of harrasing and collecting bribe in delhi, and also I was in no mood to give bribe because of fewer resources and also less daily expenditure money I can utilise at any moment of time.

42)They(A Government Organisation) are again ready to exploit me and my family by demanding more and more money.


44)I am explaining below two more domestic remedies I have tried to exploit as advised by you.(Ms.Maria Andrea Echazu)

1)Government of Delhi Grievance Cell Complaint No. CMO/PGC/2006/515174

2)Supreme Court Of India Reference No. 1056(Civil Appeal) dt.12-03-2006

45)I am sending you more proof to place my complaint but my request for reply in the form of e mail is the same because i am not alone the sufferer,life of my only son can also be ruined who is only 4 years old in this process. I have just given one of the examples of domestic remedies which i had already exhausted before complaining to human rights commission Thus I am in no intention to repeat this kind of procedures of domestic remedies because they are of no use in the kind of society,system we are surviving in india. The level of ethics and commitment is almost nil in all government employees of india.

I am no longer able to continue to survive remembering that torture and humiliation.
Gagan Deep Maggo Reference G/SO 215/1 (human rights commission)
Average: 3.9 (7 votes)

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